Cold stamping is a pressure method that uses a die installed on a press to apply pressure to the material to cause it to separate or plastically deform, thereby obtaining the required part (commonly known as stamping or punching). Because it is usually processed at room temperature on a press, it is called cold stamping.
The main feature of the cold stamping production process is to rely on the die and stamping equipment to complete the machining, which is convenient to achieve automation, high productivity, and simple operation. For ordinary presses, each can produce several to dozens of stamped parts per minute, while high-speed presses can produce hundreds or even thousands of stamped parts per minute. The parts obtained by cold stamping generally do not need to be cut, so it is a method with no or less cutting that saves energy and raw materials. Since the raw materials used for cold stamping are mostly sheets or strips with good surface quality, the dimensional tolerances of the punched parts are guaranteed by the die, so the dimensions are stable and the interchangeability is good. Cold stamped products have thin walls, light weight, and good rigidity, and can be processed into parts with complex shapes, ranging from the seconds hand of clocks and watches to the side members and cover parts of automobiles.
However, because die manufacturing is generally a single piece of small batch production, high precision, high technical requirements, is a technology-intensive product, high manufacturing costs. Therefore, cold stamping production can only achieve high economic effects in the case of large batches.
In summary, compared with other machining methods, cold stamping has unique characteristics, so it is widely used in industrial production, especially in mass production. Quite a number of industrial sectors are increasingly using cold stamped parts, such as machinery manufacturing, vehicle production, aerospace, electronics, electrical appliances, light industry, instrumentation and daily necessities. In these industrial sectors, the proportion of stamped parts is quite large. Many parts that were manufactured by casting, forging, and cutting methods in the past are now replaced by light-weight and rigid stamping parts. Through stamping, productivity is greatly improved and costs are reduced. It can be said that if the stamping process is not widely used in production, it is difficult to achieve product upgrading, product quality and cost reduction in many industrial sectors.
With the advancement of science and technology and the development of society, the products have higher and higher requirements for fixture and jigs. Traditional mold design and manufacturing methods can no longer meet the needs of products and the times. Especially since the 1990s, the variety and quantity of industrial products has been increasing, new requirements have been put forward on product quality, style and appearance, which has increased the demand for molds, and has increasingly higher quality requirements for molds. Mold technology directly affects direct manufacturing Industry development, product upgrading and product competitiveness. Therefore, the rapid improvement of the technical level of the mold has become a top priority.
With the development of modern industry, cold stamping technology has developed rapidly.
1. Cold stamping process
Research and promotion of important trends in the development of various stamping technologies aimed at improving productivity and product quality, reducing costs and expanding the scope of stamping process applications. At present, the advanced stamping processes emerging at home and abroad and rapidly used for production include precision stamping, flexible film forming, superplastic forming, moldless multi-point forming, explosion and electromagnetic high energy forming, efficient precision stamping technology, cold extrusion technology, etc. . These advanced stamping technologies have achieved good technical and economic results in actual production.
Precision stamping is not only an effective method to improve the precision of stamping parts, but also an important way to expand the scope of stamping machining. At present, the precision of precision blanking can reach IT6 ~ IT7, and the sheet thickness can reach 25mm. The fine blanking method can not only be blanked, but also formed (precision bending, deep drawing, flanging, cold extrusion, embossing and sinking, etc.).
2. Die design and manufacturing
The die is the basic condition for realizing the production of the die. At present, there are two trends in die design and manufacturing that should be given sufficient attention.
(1) Mold structure and accuracy are developing in two aspects
On the one hand, in order to meet the needs of high-speed, automatic, precision, safety and other large-scale automated production, the die is developing in the direction of high efficiency, precision, long life, multi-station, multi-function; on the other hand, in order to adapt to the product upgrades on the market Rapid requirements, the design and manufacturing of various rapid prototyping methods and simple economic dies have developed rapidly.
The design and manufacturing level of high-efficiency, precision, multi-function, long-life multi-station progressive die and automotive cover die represents the modern die technology level. Our country can design and manufacture mechatronics, high-efficiency, precision, long-life, multi-position progressive die that reaches the international advanced level. The precision of the working parts reaches 2 ~ 5µm, the step accuracy reaches 2 ~ 3µm, and the total life reaches 100 million. More than the number of times; China’s automobile industry already has the ability to produce complete sets of cover dies for mid-range cars, and has applied high-strength resin casting cover dies for automobile trial production and small batch production, which shortens the trial production cycle, reduces costs, and accelerates the development of new models. Development.
(2) Modernization of mold design and manufacturing
Computer technology, information technology and other advanced technologies have been widely used in mold technology, which is a profoundly revolutionary change in the level of mold technology design and manufacturing. At present the most prominent is the mold CAD / CAM / CAE. In today’s world mold industry pattern, Japan, the United States and European industrialized countries are the leaders in the development of mold technology in the world. They occupy half of the world ’s mold. They have modern design methods and advanced mold manufacturing equipment, especially in recent years The state regards the CAD / CAM system as a development arm of the mold industry, and the momentum of development is as high as ever.
The rapid development of mold technology, due to its advanced technology, mold CAD / CAM has developed rapidly and is widely used. Its technical and economic effects are incomparable with traditional mold design and manufacturing methods. It has the following characteristics:
1 shorten the production cycle of the mold.
2. High mold quality.
3. Significantly reduce production efficiency.
4. CAD / CAM technology frees technicians from a large number of computational drawings and NC programming, so that they produce more creative labor.
Compared with the traditional mold industry, modern mold manufacturing and mold industry has new characteristics:
The productivity of modern molds is much higher than that of traditional molds. The main reason is that modern molds have multi-station, multi-cavity molds or multi-functions. For example, there are more than 50 second-rate molds for high productivity and 18 second-place molds for rubber shoes. In addition to stamping, a set of multifunctional molds also undertakes assembly tasks such as assembly and riveting, and can directly produce assembly parts.
Modern molds require an order of magnitude higher accuracy than traditional molds. The precision of precision plastic dies for station-stage progressive dies has reached 0.003mm or higher. Some high precision, especially those with full insert life. Long-life molds are the basic condition for ensuring high production efficiency of high-pressing equipment. The life of modern dies is generally more than 5 million times. The life of hard alloy molds can reach 20-60 million times, 400,000 to 600,000 injection molds, and 500,000 to 1 million die casting molds, while the life of traditional molds is only 1/5 or 1/10 of modern molds.
3. Complex cavity shape and mold structure
With the increase of people’s requirements for product shape, dimensional accuracy, and overall productivity, and the widespread application of many new materials and processes, the cavity structure of modern molds is more complicated.
Based on the above characteristics, we can find the modern mold industry to become an independent industrial system. Standardization of molds, high level of specialization, with mold standardization and production and supply system of high-quality mold materials. In addition, technical personnel and capital are intensive. The mold has changed from traditional labor-intensive to technology-intensive. Talent-intensive and capital-intensive industries. Technology intensiveness is reflected in the CAD / CAM of the mold, and advanced design methods and equipment will inevitably require high-quality professionals to form a talent-intensive. At the same time, high industry is also an important sign of modern mold. But to achieve CIMS in mold production, it will take some time. However, with the development and widespread application of CAD / CAM integration technology and the development of related high and new technologies, in the near future, it will be fully integrated, and automated CIMS will be realized in mold production. Make the mold technology, and the whole human mold technology achieve a new leap.
Throughout the development of the entire modern cold stamping mold technology, we can see that mold manufacturing technology is always moving to a high and new direction, and it is accompanied by the development of manual shift to automation. All in all, mold design and manufacturing will completely get rid of relying mainly on manual production methods, so that mold manufacturing can be more rationalized, the structure is more simplified, the accuracy is higher, and it will provide new vitality for the development of various industries in the future.
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