What is a biochip? What is the development status of biochips?

1. Biochip

Biochip technology originated from the hybridization of nucleic acid molecules. The so-called biochip generally refers to a microarray hybrid chip in which bioinformatics molecules are immobilized on a mutually supporting medium at high density. The sequence and position of each molecule in the array is known and is a preset sequence lattice. Microfluidic chips and liquid-phase biochips are new biochip technologies developed after microarray chips. Biochip technology is the basic content of systems biotechnology.

What is a biochip? What is the development status of biochips?

Based on the principle of specific interaction between biomolecules, the biochip integrates the biochemical analysis process on the surface of the chip, thereby realizing high-throughput and rapid detection of biological components such as DNA, RNA, peptides, and proteins. The narrow concept of biochip refers to the biomolecular lattice formed by immobilizing biomolecules on solid-phase emitters such as silicon wafers, glass wafers, plastic wafers, gels, nylon membranes, etc. by different methods. Therefore, biochip technology is also called microdisplay technology, and solid-phase substrates containing a large amount of biological information are called microarrays, also called biochips. On the basis of such chips, biochips develop microfluidic chips, also known as microelectronic chips, that is, microscale laboratory chips.

So, let’s take a look at what is a biochip? Simply put, a biochip is to place a biological sample on a piece of glass, silicon, nylon membrane and other materials, then use an instrument to collect signals, and use a computer to analyze the data results. It is easy to associate biochips with Electronic chips. In fact, the two do have one basic thing in common: the tiny size contains a lot of data. But they are two completely different things. The Electronic chip is provided with a semiconductor electronic unit, and the biological chip is provided with biological probe molecules.

The concept of chip stems from the concept of integration. For example, an electronic chip means turning big things into small things and integrating them together. Biochips are also integrated, but the integration of biological materials. Like laboratory testing, the detection of blood sugar, protein, enzyme activity, etc. on biochips is also based on the same biological reaction principle. So the biochip is a carrier platform. There are many kinds of materials for this platform, such as silicon, glass, membrane, etc., and some polymers with three-dimensional structure. The platform is densely packed with various biological materials. The chip is just a carrier. What to do and what to test is still done by biologists. In other words, reactions that used to require a large number of test tubes in very large labs are now being transferred to the chip and occurring simultaneously.

2. Development status of biochips

Next, let’s take a look at some of the development status of biochips.

China’s biochip industry chain is divided into upstream raw material industry, midstream manufacturing, and downstream application markets. The upstream raw materials include chip substrates, spotting, probe preparation, etc.; the main products of the midstream manufacturing industry are gene chip diagnostic kits and gene chip related instruments, accounting for 86% and 14% of the market respectively; the downstream application market is mainly medical institutions, Families, third-party diagnostic outsourcing agencies, etc. my country’s biochips are still in the fields of bioinformatics and other scientific research, and the field of molecular diagnosis has not been widely used. China’s biochip market has great potential, but it only accounts for 5% of the global biochip market. China’s biochip industry is still in its infancy. Most biochip companies focus on applications, including in vitro diagnostics, CTC cell capture, cell counting, blood glucose monitoring, etc. Among them, the number of in vitro diagnostic companies is more than 3/4. There are few upstream companies in China’s biochip industry, with insufficient R&D efforts, low R&D level, weak technology, and lack of first-mover advantage. Chinese biochip companies are mainly medium-sized companies (registered scale of 10 million to 1 billion yuan), accounting for more than 58%. However, only 22% of enterprises with a registered scale of more than 1 billion yuan, and only 22% of leading enterprises, the industrial structure needs to be optimized.

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