comparison of foot kinematics between subjects with posterior tibialis tendon dysfunction and healthy controls

> Study design: > A 2 x 4 mixed-design ANOVA with a fixed factor of group (posterior tibialis tendon dysfunction [PTTD] and asymptomatic controls), and a repeated factor of phase of stance (loading response, midstance, terminal stance, and preswing).

> Objective: > To compare 3-dimensional stance period kinematics (rearfoot eversion/inversion, medial longitudinal arch [MLA] angle, and forefoot abduction) of subjects with stage II PTTD to asymptomatic controls.

> Background: > Abnormal foot postures in subjects with stage II PTTD are clinical indicators of disease progression, yet dynamic investigations of forefoot, midfoot, and rearfoot kinematic deviations in this population are lacking.

> Methods: > Fourteen subjects with stage II PTTD were compared to 10 control subjects with normal arch index values. Subjects were matched for age, gender, and body mass index. A 5-segment, kinematic model of the leg and foot was tracked using an Optotrak Motion Analysis System. The dependent kinematic variables were rearfoot inversion/eversion, forefoot abduction/adduction, and the MLA angle. An ANOVA model was used to compare kinematic variables between groups across 4 phases of stance.

> Results: > Subjects with PTTD demonstrated significantly greater rearfoot eversion (P = .042), MLA angle (P = .008) and forefoot abduction angles (P < .005) during specific phases of stance. Subjects with PTTD demonstrated significantly greater rearfoot eversion (P<.004) and MLA angles (P < .009) by 6.2 degrees and 8.0 degrees, respectively, during loading response when compared to controls. During preswing, the subjects with PTTD demonstrated a significantly greater MLA angle (P < .002) and a forefoot abduction angle (P<.001) which exceeded that of the controls by 10.0 degrees.

> Conclusions: > The abnormal kinematics observed at the rearfoot, midfoot, and forefoot across all phases of stance implicate a failure of compensatory muscle and secondary ligamentous support to control foot kinematics in subjects with stage II PTTD.

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