With the improvement of people’s requirements for car comfort and other aspects, the importance of body Electronic control and power has become increasingly prominent, and more and more cars have begun to be equipped with high-performance body control systems and advanced management systems. The addition and upgrading of such systems has opened up a huge space for the application of semiconductor devices.
However, facing the needs of environmental protection and enriching consumer experience, as well as the strictest specifications for automotive components, manufacturers should, on the one hand, pay more attention to the certification of reliability indicators in product design and manufacturing, and on the other hand, ensure that products are While providing higher performance, it meets the requirements of environmental protection and energy saving. This article will combine ON Semiconductor’s automotive expertise to discuss the various components used in automotive body and powertrain solutions.
Advanced Automotive Technology
The increase in automotive electronics makes every part of the car unavoidable from spurious signals, possibly even 80 VV peaks, which the automotive design team must take into account. Modules and components used in automobiles need to be able to withstand this peak and be guaranteed to function as they should. Leveraging proven automotive technology capabilities, ON Semiconductor has developed a dedicated set of high-voltage automotive power technologies to implement complex high-voltage system-on-chip (SoC) solutions that meet maximum voltage and digital gate integration requirements.
At the same time, the increasing amount of electronic content in automobiles requires higher and higher electromagnetic compatibility, and automobile manufacturers have also developed corresponding performance standards, aiming to make in-vehicle network (IVN) applications have higher immunity to ESD pulses and immunity. EMI capability. ON Semiconductor utilizes innovative I3T50/I3T80 technology to provide best-in-class devices, enabling advanced features through processes such as deep trench isolation, while ensuring reliable designs and reducing interference between different cell structures on the chip .
A range of ON Semiconductor technologies allow the use of power supplies up to 100V, facilitating the integration of components – including embedded microprocessor cores. ON Semiconductor’s automotive ASIC and Application Specific Standard Product (ASSP) solutions are widely used in powertrain (including high temperature applications with ambient temperatures ≥150°C), safety, body, instrument panel, IVN, sensor and actuator applications.
ON Semiconductor is a major supplier to the automotive MOSFET market. In addition to the planar MOSFET product line, the company also offers 40 V and 60 V trench MOSFETs. Trench technology is optimized for low Rds((on)) switching applications and is more suitable for linear operating modes than planar technology.
ON Semiconductor Body and Convenience Application Solutions
Body electronics and convenience applications include climate control, smart junction boxes, headlight adjustment and power control, wiper and light sensing, mirror control, seat position/heating/cooling, door modules, steering wheel sensors, and more.
Here, the control, communication and power supply of the body heating, ventilation and air conditioning ((HVAC), and the DC motor drive are introduced as examples.
1. bodyHVACcontrol, communication and power
HVAC consists of several subsystems: one is the car heating and ventilation system, which draws fresh air into the cabin from external ducts; the incoming air can be heated by a small heating core connected to the engine cooling system. Its purpose is to improve passenger comfort and safety. The second is the air conditioning refrigeration system, which transfers the heat inside the car to the continuously circulating evaporating and condensing outside air, reducing the temperature and humidity of the air. The third is the control head, the ECU (Electronic Control Unit) with the user interface.
Figure 1: HVAC block diagram
Figure 1 is a block diagram of the HVAC. The green parts in the figure will use various devices from ON Semiconductor. These devices include diodes and rectifiers for I/O protection; interfaces for transceivers or SBCs; IGBTs/FETs and MOSFETs for motor pre-drivers (BLDC, BDC); loads/relays for stepper motor drives Drivers and Interfaces; Bipolar Transistor/Digital Transistor (BRT) for Control Panels, Interfaces, Analog Switches, Standard Logic, Multiplexers; Amplifiers and Comparators for Signal Conditioning, Operational Amplifiers; Drivers, load/relay drivers, IGBTs/FETs and MOSFETs; diodes and rectifiers for power protection, small signal switching diodes, Zener diodes, Schottky diodes; interfaces for voltage regulation (linear, switching), DC- Direct current (DC-DC) controllers, converters and regulators, controllers, linear regulators; DC-DC controllers, converters and regulators for monitoring; and load/ Relay drivers, IGBT/FET and MOSFET.
2. bodyHVACDC Motor Driver
Currently, the most popular flap actuators are simple DC motors that feed position signals back to a microcontroller. To control the forward and reverse direction of the DC motor, two high-side power stages and two low-side power stages in a full-bridge configuration must be used. Typically, these drives integrate required functions such as overvoltage, overload and overtemperature protection. In addition, the SPI interface can provide diagnostic functions for the microcontroller.
Integrated pulse counting technology combined with additional signal conditioning blocks can replace discrete position potentiometers. In a pulse counting application, the circuit detects the commutation pulses of a DC motor and creates a pulse for each detected commutation pulse. Usually these pulses are fed back to the microcontroller for position detection and position control. An ASIC customized by ON Semiconductor for this type of circuit is already in production.
The six-channel half-bridge driver NCV7708 is a flexible single-sided high/low-side driver. Its six high- and low-side channels are dedicated to motor control configurations such as half-bridge or full-bridge. The NCV7708 can control 5 DC motors through a 16-bit SPI interface. The device can also control relays or indicators. Figure 2 is a functional block diagram of the device.
Figure 2: NCV7708 functional block diagram
The triple half-bridge driver NCV7703 can control two DC motors. The internal connection of the power stage is used as a half bridge, and the device in the SO-14 package can effectively reduce the pin count. Figure 3 is a block diagram of the device.
Figure 3: NCV7703 functional block diagram
3. for bodyHVACConfigurable motors, relays andleddriver
With maximum flexibility, the NCV7608 can drive different types of motors and various loads such as light bulbs, LEDs and relays. The NCV7608 has a special diagnostic current disable bit that prevents LED lighting, as well as standard diagnostic functions. Figure 4 is a functional block diagram of the NCV7608.
Figure 4: NCV7608 for maximum flexibility
The device is an 8-way configurable low-side/high-side driver in a high-density SOIC-28W package capable of operating from -40°C to +150°C junction temperature. The NCV7608 has a wide input voltage range of 3.15 V to 5.25 V, and has 8 fully independent output drivers that can be configured in any combination of high-side, low-side or half-bridge configurations, providing an extremely flexible solution for designers who need to drive large loads .
The device performs digital control of all output segments through an integrated standard serial peripheral interface, which also provides diagnostic fault information. In addition, 4 channels can be controlled by pulse width modulation (PWM) using external control input pins. The device’s typical on-resistance (RDSON) at 25°C is only 1.2 Ω, which greatly extends battery life.
The well-specified NCV7608 also provides positive/negative transient protection, overcurrent protection, and overtemperature protection. Its integrated clamp circuit (in high-side and low-side operating modes) ensures over-temperature protection and under-voltage lockout. Unipolar and bipolar stepper motor control can be supported using the NCV7608, as shown in Figure 5.
Figure 5: Supporting unipolar and bipolar stepper motor control with the NCV7608
ON Semiconductor Power System Solutions
The powertrain includes transmission control and position detection, engine control, throttle control, fuel level detection, air flow monitoring, valve control, fuel injection control, etc. Introduced here is ON Semiconductor’s engine management and fuel injection system solutions.
1. Engine Management Solutions
ON Semiconductor has developed a variety of custom and standard products for gasoline, bi/flexfuel, and diesel engines, covering a wide range of applications from ignition-controlled air and fuel supply to exhaust aftertreatment subsystems . The product portfolio includes: inductive angle sensor interfaces, pressure sensor interfaces, knock and wheel speed detection circuits, oil/urea-flow and airflow interfaces, in-vehicle networking components, throttle actuator drivers and pre-drivers, electromagnetic and piezoelectric fuel injection systems, spark ignition, fans, pumps and hydraulic controls. 6 is a block diagram of a gasoline engine management system. In addition, ON Semiconductor also provides diesel engine management systems to meet the increasing demand for diesel engines in Europe and North America.
Figure 6: Gasoline Engine Management System
2. Fuel Injection System Solutions
The fuel injection system is used to measure the amount and timing of fuel per cylinder. Fully integrated multi-point (MPI) gasoline engine management systems remain the most popular solution today. To meet the new demands of the strong growth of gasoline direct injection (GDI) systems, ON Semiconductor also introduced powertrain solutions covering transmission control and position detection, engine control, throttle control, fuel level sensor, air flow monitoring, valve control, fuel injection control and other applications.
Semiconductor devices help improve efficiency through engine control, detection, and drive. Carefully controlled critical components such as injectors and valves allow for maximum efficiency. To improve control, real-time measurement and processing of combustion chamber pressure is required, which can reduce gasoline engine fuel consumption by 30%.
In addition to being used in the body and powertrain, ON Semiconductor’s various automotive applications using advanced automotive process technology can also be used in other parts of automotive electronics to achieve excellent performance. These devices include: System-on-Chip that integrates key system components to improve system reliability, reduce power consumption, and save board space; Linear regulators with very low quiescent current and wide linear regulation capability with short-circuit and over-temperature protection ; Integrated circuits with self-protected MOSFETs can replace relays and fuses to drive solenoids and lamps; high-voltage rectifiers that eliminate reverse recovery oscillations provide low forward voltage drop and improve efficiency; high-reliability electronic modules with transient voltage protection Implement protection for I/O and sensors, load dump, network data lines, and load switches. In addition, ON Semiconductor offers a wide range of automotive grade operational amplifiers and comparators, reliable motor and electromechanical relay driver ICs and sockets, and a robust standard logic family in standard CMOS/low voltage CMOS processes.
All of these integrated circuits and discrete devices comply with specifications and environmental requirements such as automotive reliability and temperature, while at the same time meeting the ever-increasing demands on automotive comfort.